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Version: 1.8

Testing for cluster operators

As a Kubernetes cluster operator, you will want to perform testing against Kubewarden policies you want to use.

You will have questions like:

  • What are the correct policy settings to get the validation/mutation outcome I need?
  • How can I be sure everything will keep working as expected when:
    • I upgrade the policy to a newer version
    • I add/change some Kubernetes resources
    • I change the configuration parameters of the policy
    • and so on?

Kubewarden has a utility, kwctl, that allows testing of the policies outside of Kubernetes.

To use kwctl we invoke it with following inputs:

  1. A WebAssembly binary file URI of the policy to be run. The Kubewarden policy can be loaded from the local filesystem file://, an HTTP(s) server https://, or an OCI registry registry://.
  2. The admission request object to be evaluated. You provide it with the --request-path argument. Use stdin by setting --request-path to -.
  3. You provide run time policy settings as inline JSON via --settings-json flag. Or with a JSON or YAML file from the filesystem using --settings-path.

After the test kwctl prints the ValidationResponse object to the standard output.

You can download pre-built binaries of kwctl from here.

A testing example

This section describes how to test the psp-apparmor policy with different configurations and validation request objects.

Create AdmissionReview requests

We have to create files holding the AdmissionReview objects to test the policy.

You can create a file named pod-req-no-specific-apparmor-profile.json with the following contents:

pod-req-no-specific-apparmor-profile.json
{
"uid": "1299d386-525b-4032-98ae-1949f69f9cfc",
"kind": {
"kind": "Pod",
"version": "v1"
},
"object": {
"metadata": {
"name": "no-apparmor"
},
"spec": {
"containers": [
{
"image": "nginx",
"name": "nginx"
}
]
}
},
"operation": "CREATE",
"requestKind": {"version": "v1", "kind": "Pod"},
"userInfo": {
"username": "alice",
"uid": "alice-uid",
"groups": ["system:authenticated"]
}
}

This request tries to create a Pod that doesn't specify any AppArmor profile to be used. Because it doesn't have an annotation with the container.apparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/<container-name> key.

You can create a file named pod-req-apparmor-unconfined.json with the following contents:

pod-req-apparmor-unconfined.json
{
"uid": "1299d386-525b-4032-98ae-1949f69f9cfc",
"kind": {
"kind": "Pod",
"version": "v1"
},
"object": {
"metadata": {
"name": "privileged-pod",
"annotations": {
"container.apparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/nginx": "unconfined"
}
},
"spec": {
"containers": [
{
"image": "nginx",
"name": "nginx"
}
]
}
},
"operation": "CREATE",
"requestKind": {"version": "v1", "kind": "Pod"},
"userInfo": {
"username": "alice",
"uid": "alice-uid",
"groups": ["system:authenticated"]
}
}

This request tries to create a Pod with a container called nginx running with the unconfined AppArmor profile. Note that, running in unconfined mode is a bad security practice.

Now you can create a file named pod-req-apparmor-custom.json with the following contents:

pod-req-apparmor-custom.json
{
"uid": "1299d386-525b-4032-98ae-1949f69f9cfc",
"kind": {
"kind": "Pod",
"version": "v1"
},
"object": {
"metadata": {
"name": "privileged-pod",
"annotations": {
"container.apparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/nginx": "localhost/nginx-custom"
}
},
"spec": {
"containers": [
{
"image": "nginx",
"name": "nginx"
}
]
}
},
"operation": "CREATE",
"requestKind": {"version": "v1", "kind": "Pod"},
"userInfo": {
"username": "alice",
"uid": "alice-uid",
"groups": ["system:authenticated"]
}
}
note

These are all simplified AdmissionReview objects. We have only the fields relevant to our testing of the policy.

Test the policy

Now we can use kwctl to test the creation of a Pod not specifying an AppArmor profile:

$ kwctl run \
--request-path pod-req-no-specific-apparmor-profile.json \
registry://ghcr.io/kubewarden/policies/psp-apparmor:v0.1.4 \
| jq

The policy will accept the request and produce output like:

{
"uid": "1299d386-525b-4032-98ae-1949f69f9cfc",
"allowed": true
}

The policy will instead reject the creation of a Pod with an unconfined AppArmor profile:

$ kwctl run \
--request-path pod-req-apparmor-unconfined.json \
registry://ghcr.io/kubewarden/policies/psp-apparmor:v0.1.4 \
| jq
{
"uid": "1299d386-525b-4032-98ae-1949f69f9cfc",
"allowed": false,
"status": {
"message": "These AppArmor profiles are not allowed: [\"unconfined\"]"
}
}

Both times we ran the policy without providing any kind of setting. As the policy's documentation states, this results in preventing the usage of non-default profiles.

The Pod using a custom nginx profile gets rejected by the policy too:

$ kwctl run \
--request-path pod-req-apparmor-custom.json \
registry://ghcr.io/kubewarden/policies/psp-apparmor:v0.1.4 \
| jq
{
"uid": "1299d386-525b-4032-98ae-1949f69f9cfc",
"allowed": false,
"status": {
"message": "These AppArmor profiles are not allowed: [\"localhost/nginx-custom\"]"
}
}

You can change the default behavior, allowing some chosen AppArmor to be used:

$ kwctl run \
--request-path pod-req-apparmor-custom.json \
--settings-json '{"allowed_profiles": ["runtime/default", "localhost/nginx-custom"]}' \
registry://ghcr.io/kubewarden/policies/psp-apparmor:v0.1.4 \
| jq

Now the request succeeds:

{
"uid": "1299d386-525b-4032-98ae-1949f69f9cfc",
"allowed": true
}

Automation

All these steps, shown above, can be automated using bats.

You can write a series of tests and integrate their execution inside your existing CI and CD pipelines.

The commands above can be "wrapped" into a bats test:

A batstest
@test "all is good" {
run kwctl run \
--request-path pod-req-no-specific-apparmor-profile.json \
registry://ghcr.io/kubewarden/policies/psp-apparmor:v0.1.4

# this prints the output when one the checks below fails
echo "output = ${output}"

# request accepted
[ $(expr "$output" : '.*"allowed":true.*') -ne 0 ]
}

@test "reject" {
run kwctl run \
--request-path pod-req-apparmor-custom.json \
registry://ghcr.io/kubewarden/policies/psp-apparmor:v0.1.4

# this prints the output when one the checks below fails
echo "output = ${output}"

# request rejected
[ $(expr "$output" : '.*"allowed":false.*') -ne 0 ]
}

If the bats code above is in the file e2e.bats, we can run the test as:

$ bats e2e.bats
✓ all is good
✓ reject

2 tests, 0 failures

This section has more about writing end-to-end tests for your policies.