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Version: 1.11

Writing the validation logic

The validation logic goes be in the validate.go file.

Your validation logic needs to:

  • Extract the relevant information from the incoming payload object.
  • Return a response based on the input and the policy settings.

The incoming payload is a JSON object, described in this document, and you can get the data from it in two ways:

  1. Unmarshal the JSON data into Go types.
  2. Perform JSON queries (something similar to jq).

This section of the documentation focuses on the first approach, using Go types. A description of the second approach is in a later validation with queries section.

note

Relying on Kubernetes objects, instead of doing jq-like searches, leads to generation of bigger WebAssembly modules. A policy using Kubernetes objects can be around 1.5 MB while one using gjson is around 300 KB.

Apart from size, the policy using Kubernetes objects take much more time during first execution. Following invocations are fast because Kubewarden uses Wasmtime's cache feature. The first execution can take about 20 seconds with kwctl, later executions, 1 to 2 seconds. So, Kubewarden Policy Server has a slower start-up time but then policy evaluation times aren't usually effected by the usage of Kubernetes objects.

The validate function

The policy provided by the scaffold template, in validate.go, already has a validate function. You need to make few changes to it for this tutorial.

This is how the function should be when complete:

func validate(payload []byte) ([]byte, error) {
// NOTE 1
// Create a ValidationRequest instance from the incoming payload
validationRequest := kubewarden_protocol.ValidationRequest{}
err := json.Unmarshal(payload, &validationRequest)
if err != nil {
return kubewarden.RejectRequest(
kubewarden.Message(err.Error()),
kubewarden.Code(400))
}

// NOTE 2
// Create a Settings instance from the ValidationRequest object
settings, err := NewSettingsFromValidationReq(&validationRequest)
if err != nil {
return kubewarden.RejectRequest(
kubewarden.Message(err.Error()),
kubewarden.Code(400))
}

// NOTE 3
// Access the **raw** JSON that describes the object
podJSON := validationRequest.Request.Object

// NOTE 4
// Try to create a Pod instance using the RAW JSON we got from the
// ValidationRequest.
pod := &corev1.Pod{}
if err := json.Unmarshal([]byte(podJSON), pod); err != nil {
return kubewarden.RejectRequest(
kubewarden.Message(
fmt.Sprintf("Cannot decode Pod object: %s", err.Error())),
kubewarden.Code(400))
}

logger.DebugWithFields("validating pod object", func(e onelog.Entry) {
e.String("name", pod.Metadata.Name)
e.String("namespace", pod.Metadata.Namespace)
})

// NOTE 5
for label, value := range pod.Metadata.Labels {
if err := validateLabel(label, value, &settings); err != nil {
return kubewarden.RejectRequest(
kubewarden.Message(err.Error()),
kubewarden.NoCode)
}
}

return kubewarden.AcceptRequest()
}

The code has NOTE sections:

  1. Create a kubewarden_protocol.ValidationRequest by unmarshaling the JSON payload.
  2. Create a Settings object by using the function you earlier defined in the settings.go file.
  3. Access the raw JSON representation of the Pod that's part of the ValidationRequest.
  4. Unmarshal the Pod object.
  5. Iterate over the labels of the Pod. You use a new function called validateLabel to identify labels violating the policy.

You also need to define the validateLabel function in the validate.go file:

func validateLabel(label, value string, settings *Settings) error {
if settings.DeniedLabels.Contains(label) {
return fmt.Errorf("Label %s is on the deny list", label)
}

regExp, found := settings.ConstrainedLabels[label]
if found {
// This is a constrained label
if !regExp.Match([]byte(value)) {
return fmt.Errorf("The value of %s doesn't pass user-defined constraint", label)
}
}

return nil
}

Testing the validation code

Now you can write unit tests to check the validation code is behaving. Locate the tests in the validate_test.go file.

You should replace the contents of the scaffolding file to match this:

validate_test.go
package main

import (
"regexp"
"testing"

"encoding/json"

mapset "github.com/deckarep/golang-set/v2"
corev1 "github.com/kubewarden/k8s-objects/api/core/v1"
metav1 "github.com/kubewarden/k8s-objects/apimachinery/pkg/apis/meta/v1"
kubewarden_protocol "github.com/kubewarden/policy-sdk-go/protocol"
kubewarden_testing "github.com/kubewarden/policy-sdk-go/testing"
)

func TestValidateLabel(t *testing.T) {
// NOTE 1
cases := []struct {
podLabels map[string]string
deniedLabels mapset.Set[string]
constrainedLabels map[string]*RegularExpression
expectedIsValid bool
}{
{
// Pod has no labels -> should be accepted
podLabels: map[string]string{},
deniedLabels: mapset.NewThreadUnsafeSet[string]("owner"),
constrainedLabels: map[string]*RegularExpression{},
expectedIsValid: true,
},
{
// Pod has labels, none is denied -> should be accepted
podLabels: map[string]string{
"hello": "world",
},
deniedLabels: mapset.NewThreadUnsafeSet[string]("owner"),
constrainedLabels: map[string]*RegularExpression{},
expectedIsValid: true,
},
{
// Pod has labels, one is denied -> should be rejected
podLabels: map[string]string{
"hello": "world",
},
deniedLabels: mapset.NewThreadUnsafeSet[string]("hello"),
constrainedLabels: map[string]*RegularExpression{},
expectedIsValid: false,
},
{
// Pod has labels, one has constraint that is respected -> should be accepted
podLabels: map[string]string{
"cc-center": "team-123",
},
deniedLabels: mapset.NewThreadUnsafeSet[string]("hello"),
constrainedLabels: map[string]*RegularExpression{
"cc-center": {
Regexp: regexp.MustCompile(`team-\d+`),
},
},
expectedIsValid: true,
},
{
// Pod has labels, one has constraint that are not respected -> should be rejected
podLabels: map[string]string{
"cc-center": "team-kubewarden",
},
deniedLabels: mapset.NewThreadUnsafeSet[string]("hello"),
constrainedLabels: map[string]*RegularExpression{
"cc-center": {
Regexp: regexp.MustCompile(`team-\d+`),
},
},
expectedIsValid: false,
},
{
// Settings have a constraint, pod doesn't have this label -> should be rejected
podLabels: map[string]string{
"owner": "team-kubewarden",
},
deniedLabels: mapset.NewThreadUnsafeSet[string]("hello"),
constrainedLabels: map[string]*RegularExpression{
"cc-center": {
Regexp: regexp.MustCompile(`team-\d+`),
},
},
expectedIsValid: false,
},
}

// NOTE 2
for _, testCase := range cases {
settings := Settings{
DeniedLabels: testCase.deniedLabels,
ConstrainedLabels: testCase.constrainedLabels,
}

pod := corev1.Pod{
Metadata: &metav1.ObjectMeta{
Name: "test-pod",
Namespace: "default",
Labels: testCase.podLabels,
},
}

payload, err := kubewarden_testing.BuildValidationRequest(&pod, &settings)
if err != nil {
t.Errorf("Unexpected error: %+v", err)
}

responsePayload, err := validate(payload)
if err != nil {
t.Errorf("Unexpected error: %+v", err)
}

var response kubewarden_protocol.ValidationResponse
if err := json.Unmarshal(responsePayload, &response); err != nil {
t.Errorf("Unexpected error: %+v", err)
}

if testCase.expectedIsValid && !response.Accepted {
t.Errorf("Unexpected rejection: msg %s - code %d with pod labels: %v, denied labels: %v, constrained labels: %v",
*response.Message, *response.Code, testCase.podLabels, testCase.deniedLabels, testCase.constrainedLabels)
}

if !testCase.expectedIsValid && response.Accepted {
t.Errorf("Unexpected acceptance with pod labels: %v, denied labels: %v, constrained labels: %v",
testCase.podLabels, testCase.deniedLabels, testCase.constrainedLabels)
}
}
}

The test uses a "test-case driven" approach. You start by defining a struct that holds the data needed by a test case, see NOTE 1:

struct {
podLabels map[string]string
deniedLabels mapset.Set[string]
constrainedLabels map[string]*RegularExpression
expectedIsValid bool
}

You then declare several test cases. They have the start lines highlighted in the code block above.

For example, you should consider a Pod that has no labels to be valid. You can test this with these input values:

{
podLabels: map[string]string{},
deniedLabels: mapset.NewThreadUnsafeSet[string]("owner"),
constrainedLabels: map[string]*RegularExpression{},
expectedIsValid: true,
}

The test defines new scenarios in this way until NOTE 2. This is where you iterate over the different test cases using the following code:

  1. Create a BasicSettings object by using the data provided by the testCase.
  2. Create a Pod object, assign to it the labels defined in testCase.
  3. Create a payload object. Do this using a helper function of the Kubewarden SDK: kubewarden_testing.BuildValidationRequest. This function takes as input the object the request is about, the Pod, and the object that describes the settings, the BasicSettings instance.
  4. Finally, the code invokes your validate function and performs a check on the result.

You can now run all the unit tests, including the one defined in settings_test.go, by using:

make test

This produces the following output:

Output from make test
make test
go test -v
=== RUN TestParsingSettingsWithNoValueProvided
--- PASS: TestParsingSettingsWithNoValueProvided (0.00s)
=== RUN TestIsNameDenied
--- PASS: TestIsNameDenied (0.00s)
=== RUN TestParseValidSettings
--- PASS: TestParseValidSettings (0.00s)
=== RUN TestParseSettingsWithInvalidRegexp
--- PASS: TestParseSettingsWithInvalidRegexp (0.00s)
=== RUN TestDetectValidSettings
--- PASS: TestDetectValidSettings (0.00s)
=== RUN TestDetectNotValidSettingsDueToBrokenRegexp
--- PASS: TestDetectNotValidSettingsDueToBrokenRegexp (0.00s)
=== RUN TestDetectNotValidSettingsDueToConflictingLabels
--- PASS: TestDetectNotValidSettingsDueToConflictingLabels (0.00s)
=== RUN TestValidateLabel
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
validate_test.go:126: Unexpected acceptance with pod labels: map[owner:team-kubewarden], denied labels: Set{hello}, constrained labels: map[cc-center:team-\d+]
--- FAIL: TestValidateLabel (0.00s)
FAIL
exit status 1
FAIL github.com/kubewarden/go-policy-template 0.003s
make: *** [Makefile:29: test] Error 1

As you can see all the Settings tests are passing, but there's one test case of the TestValidateLabel that isn't:

validate_test.go:126: Unexpected acceptance with pod labels: map[owner:team-kubewarden], denied labels: Set{hello}, constrained labels: map[cc-center:team-\d+]

In this scenario, your policy settings says that Pods must have a label, with a key cc-center, that satisfies the team-\d+ regular expression. The Pod tested doesn't have this label, so you should reject it. This isn't happening however, so you can fix this in the next section.

note

You might be wondering why the output of the unit tests features lines like NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}

The logger statements in the policy produce this output. This happens only when the code runs outside the WebAssembly context. This doesn't happen when the policy evaluates in Kubewarden, in that context the logger statements emit OpenTelemetry events instead.

Fix the broken unit test

To fix the broken test you discovered you have to make a change in your validation function, validate in validate.go.

Currently, the core of your validation logic is the following lines:

for label, value := range pod.Metadata.Labels {
if err := validateLabel(label, value, &settings); err != nil {
return kubewarden.RejectRequest(
kubewarden.Message(err.Error()),
kubewarden.NoCode)
}
}

Here you iterate over each label to check that it's not denied and that it doesn't violate one of the constraints specified by the user. However, you're not making sure that the Pod has all the labels specified in Settings.ConstrainedLabels.

Add the new code, right after the for loop:

for requiredLabel := range settings.ConstrainedLabels {
_, found := pod.Metadata.Labels[requiredLabel]
if !found {
return kubewarden.RejectRequest(
kubewarden.Message(fmt.Sprintf(
"Constrained label %s not found inside of Pod",
requiredLabel),
),
kubewarden.NoCode)
}
}

Run the unit tests again:

make test

This outputs:

Output from final make test
make test
go test -v
=== RUN TestParsingSettingsWithNoValueProvided
--- PASS: TestParsingSettingsWithNoValueProvided (0.00s)
=== RUN TestIsNameDenied
--- PASS: TestIsNameDenied (0.00s)
=== RUN TestParseValidSettings
--- PASS: TestParseValidSettings (0.00s)
=== RUN TestParseSettingsWithInvalidRegexp
--- PASS: TestParseSettingsWithInvalidRegexp (0.00s)
=== RUN TestDetectValidSettings
--- PASS: TestDetectValidSettings (0.00s)
=== RUN TestDetectNotValidSettingsDueToBrokenRegexp
--- PASS: TestDetectNotValidSettingsDueToBrokenRegexp (0.00s)
=== RUN TestDetectNotValidSettingsDueToConflictingLabels
--- PASS: TestDetectNotValidSettingsDueToConflictingLabels (0.00s)
=== RUN TestValidateLabel
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
NATIVE: |{"level":"debug","message":"validating pod object","name":"test-pod","namespace":"default"}
|
--- PASS: TestValidateLabel (0.00s)
PASS
ok github.com/kubewarden/go-policy-template 0.003s

As you can see, this time all the tests pass. You can now move to the next step, writing the end-to-end tests.